经济学人 | 中国残疾人的现状

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2011 年,第六次全国人口普查数据显示,中国有近 8500 万残障人士(相当于每 16 个中国人中就有一个身患残疾)。残疾人是社会中的一个特殊群体,长久以来,他们在生活、学习、工作就业和婚恋等方面都或多或少存在着一些困难和障碍。如今,中国残疾人的境况得到了哪些改善?

Campaigners in China struggle to improve the lot of the disabled

Long ostracised, growing numbers of disabled people are demanding their rights

In 2011, when China’s most recent available census data were published, over 85m people—about one in 16—were classified as disabled (including 21m who were deaf and 13m blind.)
当 2011 年中国公布最新的人口普查数据时,有超过 8600 万人(约占总人口的十六分之一)被认定为残疾人(包括 2100 万聋哑人和 1300 万盲人)。

That compares with one in five in Britain and one in eight in America. Unlike in the West, China’s definition of disabled does not cover those with chronic illnesses. It also excludes many people who have use of their limbs, but struggle with routine tasks.

Of those who meet the census definition of disabled, far fewer than half have the government certificates that are needed to obtain disability support such as reduced medical fees and tax breaks.

And even among people with the required documentation, only 12m (around one-third) last year received the living allowance to which the disabled with low incomes are entitled. That is striking given that many of the 85m people counted as disabled are poor. Three in four live in rural areas.
即便在那些持有残疾证的人中,去年也仅有 1200 万人(约占三分之一)拿到了低收入残疾人所享有的生活津贴。考虑到被官方认定的 8500 万残疾人中有许多人都很贫穷,这一比例令人震惊。四分之三的残疾人都生活在农村地区。

Improvements are evident. In 2008 less than two-thirds of disabled children aged six to 14 were being educated. Last year 95% were. In 2012 a quarter of working-age Chinese certified as disabled had jobs.
但残疾人的境况正在得到显著改善。2008 年,在 6 至 14 岁的残疾儿童中,仅有不到三分之二的人受到过教育。到去年,这一比例已上升至 95%。2012 年,仅有四分之一持残疾证的劳动适龄残疾人拥有工作。

By 2018 this rate had doubled. In 2008, just before hosting the Paralympic games, China ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Japan did so in 2014 and America still has not.
到 2018 年,这一比例翻了一番。2008 年,在举办残奥会前夕,中国批准了《联合国残疾人权利公约》。日本于 2014 年批准了该公约,而美国至今尚未批准。

In education, two particular developments have been celebrated by campaigners for disability rights. The first was the adoption in 2015 of a regulation allowing disabled students to take the gaokao, or university-entrance exam, with “reasonable” adjustments including test papers in Braille and extra time to finish.
教育方面的两项进展尤其得到了残疾人权利运动人士的赞扬。其一是于 2015 年通过的一项允许残疾学生参加高考的规定,该规定要求高考进行 “合理” 调整,包括增设盲文试卷以及延长考试时间。

Two years later this dispensation was also applied to those taking the zhongkao, the exam for senior secondary-schools. In 2018 the parents of a pupil with cerebral palsy won a case against the education bureau of Xiamen, the coastal city where he lives. The court ruled that the bureau had been wrong to deny some of his requests for special dispensations in the zhongkao.
两年后,这项规定将适用范围扩大至那些参加中考的残疾学生。2018 年,沿海城市厦门市的一名脑瘫学生申请在中考中得到照顾,但被当地教育局拒绝,随后其父母将教育局告上了法庭。法院最终裁定,当地教育局的做法是错误的。

The second development was a decision in 2017 to encourage mainstream schools to accept disabled students. This ended a long-standing policy of segregating them. But the impact of these measures has been limited. Of 9m people admitted to mainstream universities in 2019, just 12,000 were disabled, or one in 750. By contrast, one in five students in America report having a disability.
其二是 2017 年一项鼓励主流学校接收残疾学生的决策。这使得长期以来将残疾学生排除在外的政策得以终结。但这些举措的影响十分有限。在 2019 年被主流大学录取的 900 万人中,仅有 1.2 万人是残疾人(即 750 人中有一人)。相比之下,美国大学中残疾人的比例为五分之一。

In employment, huge barriers also remain. Firms with more than 30 staff are required to give at least 1.5% of their positions to the disabled. But they worry that hiring them could harm their image. A survey in 2011 by the CDPF revealed that more than 90% of companies preferred to pay a fine.
残疾人在就业方面仍然存在巨大障碍。按规定,员工超过 30 人的公司应至少安排 1.5% 的职位给残疾人。但这些公司担心聘用残疾人有损公司形象。2011 年,中国残联的一项调查显示,超过 90% 的公司宁愿支付罚款。

After bigger fines were imposed on more profitable firms in 2015, some companies began adding disabled people to their payrolls—paying basic wages and making social-security contributions but giving them no work. This illegal practice has been facilitated by agencies that demand high fees from disabled clients who get the sinecures.
2015 年,随着针对利润较高的公司罚款金额的提高,一些公司开始将残疾人纳入其工资单,为他们支付基本工资、缴纳社保,但不给他们安排实际工作任务。一些中介机构为这种非法行为提供了便利,他们会向那些得到这种闲差的残疾人收取高额费用。

Blind people in China are still often shunted into jobs as masseurs or piano tuners. Recently, however, the CDPF has been encouraging them to try other work. It has publicised the case of Ma Yinqing, a visually-impaired 26-year-old in Shanghai, who has set up a business that employs blind people to record audio books.
在中国,盲人通常只能去做按摩师或钢琴调音师。不过近年来,中国残联一直鼓励他们去尝试其他一些工作。现年 26 岁的上海视障人士马音琴创办了一家专门雇佣盲人录制有声图书的公司,该公司成为了残联宣传的一个典型案例。

This year she plans to start a podcast in which blind guests chat to her about their lives. The federation has also drawn attention to Sun Chenlu, a paralysed beauty vlogger who live-streams from her wheelchair (her account has 26,000 followers).
今年,马音琴还计划推出一个播客,邀请盲人嘉宾和她一起聊聊他们的生活。中国残联还对坐在轮椅上做直播的瘫痪美妆博主孙晨露(她的账号仅有 2.6 万粉丝)有所关注。

Opportunities for the mentally disabled, though, are very rare. Cao Jun set up a car-washing business in Shenzhen in 2015 to employ such people, his son among them. His idea has been replicated in two dozen cities with the support of NGOs or local offices of the CDPF. “My aim is to get rid of the donation box,” says Mr Cao. He returns all tips.
但对于智障人士来说,就业机会就很少。2015 年,曹军在深圳创办了一家专门雇佣智障人士的洗车公司,他的儿子正是其中之一。在非政府组织或各地残联的支持下,他的洗车公司模式在二十多个城市得到了复制。曹军说:“我的目标是摆脱捐款箱。” 他退还了所有善款。

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